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Larissa Williamson of The Linden Mckinley High School

Summaries Of Each Chapter

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CHAPTERS

Chapter 1- New World Encounters
Vikings were the first Europeans to find the North American Continent. Iceage helped reaveal the landbridge between Alaska and China. 350 languages were spoken. Wicomes Indian leaders wanted to give satisfaction for the harm that ws don to the English. New World is considered three worlds, Europe, Afirca, and America. Paleo Indians were the first humans to come to a big continent. Native Americans produced ceramics- storage of grain- population also expanded. Columbian Exchange- decimation of Native American peoples was an aspect of ecological transformation. Christopher Columbus dreamed of Glory. Military, Adventure, and Riches.
Chapter 2- New World Experiments
Native Americans Murdered 500 colonists by scattered tobacco plantations. Men and Women migrated for economic, political and religious reasons. 1665 Duke guaranteed religious tolerance and created local governments. Quakers-believers in an extreme form of Antinomianism-no need to learn ministry. Pilgrims- seperated themselves from church of england in hope to make new life in Leydon. Living with diversity, John Smith reflected on difficulty of making colonies in the New world. The Leaders mentioned were, Baltimore, Smith, Winthrop, Bradford, Penn, and Berkely. The anticipated in creating a successful new society.
Chapter 3- Putting Down roots
Earlier settlers of New England were grouped into families providing a more stable basis for society. Town and Church were built upon a family foundation. women's lives in Puritan New England lacked the same economic, political, and legal rights afforded men. New England colonials sorted themselves into new social and economic groups (provincial gentry, yeomen, indentured servants). Cultivation of tobacco shaped Chesapeake society and perpetuated social inequality. Black Africans were considered heathens and barbarians to whites. England developed Mercantilism to increase exports, decrease imports, and grow richer. Navigation Acts-detailed commercial restrictions, and set up the Board of Trade to oversee colonial affairs and to limit competition. Bacons Rebellion- Nathaniel bacon-against government of Lord Berkely. King Phillips war-Led England to the annul the Charter of Mass. Bay. Glorious Revolution-New York and Maryland. Jacob leisler led attempt to seize control of the colony from powerful Anglo-Dutch families.
Chapter 4- Experience of Empire
New Comers moved to the back country. Scotch-Irish arrived in great numbers throughout the 18th century. Germans came for religious toleration and material lives, Convicts-indentured servants, Native Americans-joined confederations of Indian Tribes. Benjamin Franklin-American representative of cosmopolitician materialistic Alantic Culture, and the Albany Plan. Great Awakening-caused colonists to rethink their basic assumptions about church and state institutions. Seven Years War- British and French War left Britain with an Empire that expanded around the globe.
Chapter 5- The American Revolution
"No taxation without Representation" this was the view on the power of colonial assemblies, representative government and freedom from England's revenue taxation. Boston Tea Party-colonial response to New English regulations, led to coercive acts and American Rebellion. Charles Townshends-New Ministry tried new taxes on American imports and New Enforcement mechanisims.
Chapter 6- The Republican Experiment
Revolution mentality caused many to consider the role of equality in society. Republicans tried to eliminate much privilege and make society more equal so they lowered property requirement and seperated church and state. Religious people, black achievers, and republicans encouraged to push for abolishing slavery. Women demanded Husbands to be more involved with kids and equal, and fair to the family. Freedom of speech, religion and press. Articles of Confederation- weak central government, no tax, and powerless. Northwest Ordinance-Freedom, no slavery. Centralized Government= Madison and Hamilton.
Chapter 7- Democracy and dissent
george washington-1709 president-Congress-executive departments and federal court system along with tariff act. Federalists-Alexander Hamilton, Republican-Thomas Jefferson=different views about government society, economic policy, foreign affiliations, and constitution. Hamilton wanted a strong central Government and Bank of U.S. French Revolution 1789- absolute Monarchy and aristocracy privelege. Edmond Genet-Proclamation of Neutrality. John bay-Negotiate a settlement of America's grieviances-Jay's Treaty-Peace. Pickneys Treaty. Spain agreed favorable. Whiskey's rebellion- avil unrest and Republican agitation by federalists. Washington's Fairwell adress warned Americans to avoid political factions and entangling foreign Alliances. Increasing Hostility-Quasi War. Good relationd between the French and U.S. XYZ Affair humiliated and infuriated Americans. Alien and Sedition Acts-Federalists designed to harass republican spokespersons by disallowing criticism of Government.
Chapter 8- Republican Ascendancy
Economic growth- U.S before 1820 was built on Agriculture and Commerce. Textile Industry- new machines loss of independence. Thomas Jefferson-Federalist-war of 1812 reduced bureacuracy, taxes and military spending. Louisiana Purchase- double territory of U.S for 15 million. Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-1806) western exploration authorized by Jefferson. Judiciary Act of 1801- Angered republicans so the proceeded their own attempts to remove jurists and prevent federalists from obtaining office. Aaron burr- shot Hamilton. British attacked Chesapeake for not submitting to a British search- infuriated Americans. Andrew Jackson-Battle of New Orleans-Victory of War of 1812.
Chapter 9- Nation Building and Nationalism
John Q. Adams-Transcontinental treaty of 1819 with Spain. Indians were stripped of their lands. Robert Fulton-invented the steam boat. Canals were linked to Great Lakes (Ohio and Mississippi). 1825-erie canal-finished Market Economy- new induxtrial developement. Henry clay- protective tariffs and financial internal improvements. Monroe- high principled disinterested states-Missouri Compromise of 1820-Slavery in the newly created sates of the west. Monroe Doctrine-waning European pokers U.S opposed further colonization and political interference. 
Chapter 10- The Triumph of White Men's Democracy
Social equality-Major as well as industrialization which perpetuated inequality in terms of wealth and attainment Romanticism in American Literature-feelings and intuituions of ordinary people. Panic of 1819-loans extended freely by the bank of U.S. Abolitionist-end slavery-civil rights-free African Americans and women. Jackson-triumph of democracy and egalitarianism-popular soverignty-spoils system-provide himself with loyal advisors. Cherokee Indians-forced abandon ancestral grounds and embark on trali of tears. Jackson regarded No=ulification. Whigs-led by Clay and Webster growth of presidential power Martin Van Buren presidency 1836 independent sub treasury. Whigs-idea of Positive Liberal state. 
Chapter 11- Slaves and Masters
Old South- deeply divided society by race and economic class but held together by a common economy and culture. Strong Family ties supported individual slaves. African methodist Episcopal church was successful and a cornerstone of the free black community. There were more than 500,000 in the North and South combined. They faced legal restrictions. Most Southern families didn't own slaves. planter wer men of leisure and treates their slaves in a paternalistic manner. 88% slave holders- 20 or fewer slaves. Yeoman farmers-seeking capital to become large scale landowners. Elites-threatened by challenge to slavery and didn't like to talk about it. Cotton dominated lower South, upper South sold slaves. In virginia, Maryland, and Kentucky, tobacco became less significant. Cotton gin made cotton the most important export.
Chapter 12- The Pursuit of Perfection
Revivals-increase membership and extend religious values. Second Great Awakening-emotional outlet, right of passage, and social cohesion. Baptists-uneducated farmers. Methodists-Circuit riders. Evangelical revivals-free choice and free will. Women gained more power. Hving babies became popular. horace Mann-reformer-public educattion. The 3 Rs(Reading, 'Riting, and Rithmitic). Protestant ethics. Rehabilitation was located in asylums. William Lloyd Garrison-considered reforms radical. Abolitionists movement succeeded-small towns-North-Black Abolitionists were...Fredrick Douglass, Charles remona, William Wells Brown, Robert Purvis, Sojourner Truth, Frances Hraper, and Elizabeth Caty Santon. Seneca Falls Utopian Socialists-Robert Owen, and Charled Fourier. Transcendentalism-Ralph Emerson.
Chapter 13- An Age of Expansionism
Americans moved far west for economic reasons, adventure, and to avoid religious persecution. Webster-AshBurton treaty of 1842-Anglo American differences. Oregon Trail- 5,000 americans, NorthWest. Mormons- moved to Ohio and Illinois- Joseph Smith killed by angry mob. Brigham Young-led Mormons to utah 1847-disciplined cooperation. President john Tyler-annexation of Texas. Whig. Henry clay- Nominated James Polk for the annexation of Texas. Manifest Destiny- signify growing feeling among Americans, extend ideas of the Republican Government, and economic opportunities. Treaty with Britain-dividing Oregon-48th parallel. War in May 1846-Mexicans refusal to accept Texas . Rio Grande Zachary Taylor, Stephen Kearney, john Fremont, and Winfield Scott--- Capture of the capital of Mexico City. Nicholas trist- end to mexican war-treaty of Guadalupe hidalgo. Telegraph and railroad expansion. railroads replaced canals. Immigration from Ireland and germany because of economic Hardships. 
Chapter 14- The Sectional Crisis
Constitution gave federal government right to abolish slave trade. Missouri Compromis of 1820-prevented extension of slavery to certain territories. Wilmot Proviso 1846-wether African Americans should be slaves or free-REJECTED. Squatter-popular sovereignty left slavery in a territory to the settlers. Election of 1848- Zachary Taylor- no executive interference with congressional legislation-DEFEATED- Lewi Cass and Martin van Buren. Compromise of 1850 resolutions- robbed political parties of distinctive appeal. Kansas and Nebraska- Popular sovereignty. John Brown- Equip slave army and urged lower class whites to unite and abolish slavery.
Chapter 15- Secession and the Civil War
Lincoln effectively quided the union through the civil war. The crittenden Compromise- permitted the spread of slavery to the southwest. Total war- force the South physically bach into the union- societies- and economies, and armies. South- fought offensive defense. North- Anaconda policy. The south failed in attempt to use cotton supply to attract the substantial European support. France and England feared war with North. 200,000 African Americans served in the union armies. The Northeren victory achieved several military objectives. War broadened Federal powers.
Chapter 16- The Agony of Reconstruction
13th Amendment- reestablish state hood. Black Codes- restricted the freed slaves freedoms. 14th Amendment- equal rights. First Reconstruction Act 1867- Military rule, readmittance of the southern states. Freedmen could vote. Share Cropping- extended black servitude and economic dependence on the farm. Jim Crow laws- segregation of the races was imposed in the towns. Black codes of 1865 attempted to require seperation of the races in public facilities. reconstruction established Southern Governments, Carpet baggers, poor whites, and the freedmen. U.S grant's administration failed to sustain blacke suffrage against violent groups bent on restoring white supremacy. KKK- terrorism, insurrection, and murder to intimidate Southern representative government and prospective black voters. 15th Amendment severly threatened so congress passed the Force Acts- allowed president to use military force to quell insurrections. Green backers wanted government sponsered inflation. Panic of 1873 intensified argument. Spoilsmen- determined to further their own private interests. Compromise of 1977 ended military rule and insured that home rule would be restored in the south. Redeemers, White supremacy, New South, Economy----dominated by northern capital, southeren employers, landlords, and creditors.
Chapter 17- The West
Lean bear- Cheyenne Cheif- told Lincoln that indians wanted peace but worried about the numbers of white people who were coming to their country. White Amerocans crushed the culture of Natives and ignore the contributions of other races. They believed Ghost Dances would make the Whites dissapear. Dawes severality Act- giving each Native American a farm. Gold rush of 1899 to California, long journeys overland trail. National reclamation Act set aside the most of the proceeds from the sale of public lands in the Western States to finance irrigation projects in the arid states. Homestead Act of 1862 gave away 40 million acres 100 million acres, and 128 million acres to private citizens, and railroad companies. Placer mining- get gold that required little skill, technology or capital. Exodusters- African Americans who left their homes in Louisianna, Mississippi, and Texas to establish new lives and freer lives in kansas. Dry farming helped compensate for the lack of rainfall. Oliver H. Kelley founded the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry that provided social, cultural, and educational activities for the members. Turners Thesis influence of varyong racial groups, and the persistance of European ideas and instutions.
Chapter 18- The Industrial Society
Railroads transformed American technology, they transformed production, distribution, and business practices. They saved the federal government one billion dollars from 1858-1945. No railroads in the south until 1880s. Union Pacific and Central Pacific competed in the construction of the first transcontinental railroad. J P Morgan constructed regional monopolies to reduce or eliminate competition. Beseemer process- industrial empire and transportation system based on purified steel. Morgan combined steel inton U.S Steel(first bliion dollar cooperation). John D. Rockefeller ordered chaotic oil bisiness into standard oil control over 90% of oil refining in America. Women, children, catholics, jews, and immigrants carried The additional Burden of discrimination within advertising and fledging media. Workers suffered from dangerous jobseven though their lives improved. Chinese Exclusion Act- Chinese workers were prohibited from immigrating for 10 years. Workers worked 10 hours a day, and 6 days a week. Knights of Labor- sought practical immediate and tengible improvements for the members. Social and fraternal groups--companionship, insurance, job listings, and food for the sick.
Chapter 19- Toward an urban Society
New Technoloy = elevators, street cars, gree suburbs. No longer walking cities. Immigrants joined rural Americans in search of jobs in the Nations's Cities. Force to live in tentament houses-nuclear families-political machines provided some service. Victorian morality, manners, and mores, strict standards of dress manners, and sexual behavior. Rise of organized spectator sports. Concerts, fairs, circus, and croquet. New roles for women and families. Middle class more isolated, and birthrate fell dramatically. Education, more important, longer school days. Social Darwinism-need for reforms. Henry George-critical studies of new urban America. "Progress and Poverty" social thinkers- environmental deprivation on poverty. Churches- social gospel. Jane Adams- Hull House in Chicago (Best Known)
Chapter 20- Political Realignments in the 1890s
Political Realignments in the 1890s

Economic depression dominated the 1890s and reshaped political alignments and attitudes.Americans fascinated by politics during the Glided Age were most Americans saw it as a form of enterainment. The Wabash decision stated that only the federal government could regulate intrastate trade. The Sherman Antitrust Act was vague and at the mercy of the Courts. The case United States v. E. C. Knight narrowed the definition of trusts and monopolies. The major objective of the Alliance Movement was to organize and politicize the American farmer. William McKinley was elected president in 1896. The major issue of the election of 1896 was currency.
Chapter 21- Toward Empire

Toward Empire

As the American frontier "closed", many in American pushed for  new frontiers of an empire for exploration,settlement, and new markets. Theodore Roosevelt resigned from his position as assistant secretary of the navy to organize the Rough Riders. Josiah Strong fostered the concept of the righteousness of American expansion. The Treaty of Washington in 1871, showed the diplomatic skills of Hamilton Fish and provided for the negotiation of American Civil War claims against Great Britain. During the Cleveland administration, which nation did the United States replace as the major power in Latin American Great Britain.  The United States increase its interest in Haawaii after the Civil War, The economic and military value of the islands increased.
Chapter 22- The Progressive Era
The Progrssive Era

Henry Ford showed that enormous revenues could come from small unit profit on a large volume of sales. Frederick W. Taylor's management methods emphasized the enforcement of work standards and cooperation. NAACP led the fight for equal rights and education. Between 1900 and 1920, women increasingly found professional careers closed to them. In the first decade of the twentieth century, the American Federation of Labor remained devoted to the interests of skilled workers. In terms of worker relations, Henry Ford tried many innovations. The greatest leisure time available to workers resulted from a decreased in the length of the work week. A popular form of entertainment that drew from the immigrant experience was vaudeville.
Chapter 23- From Roosevelt to Wilson in the Age of Progressivism
Women gained the right to vote through the Nineteenth Amendment. The Mann-Elkins Act of 1910 balanced progressive and conservative demands. The 1910 election was significant decause the Republicans suffered tremendous losses in Congress. The Sixteenth Amendment authorized an income tax. In 1912, Roosevelt's New Nationalism demanded a stronger fole for the president and government. Woodrow Wilson won the election of 1912 because of the split in the Republican Party. The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 prohibited interlocking directorates and unfair trade practices. The Adamson Act of 1916, imposed the eifht-hour day on railroads. The preident who invited Booker T. Washington to the White House was Theodore Roosevelt.
Chapter 24- The Nation at War
The Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty gave the U.S. control pf the Panama Canal Zone. Taft's policy of "dollar diplomacy" promoted American financial and business interests abroad. In Wilson's approach to foreign affairs could be described as a moralist. At the beginning of World War I, Americans generally accepted neutrality. At the beginning of World War I, Great Britain sought to restrict American trade with Germany. The 1915 German sinking of the Lusitania cost 128 American lives and enraged the American public. The Zimmermann Telegram proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico.  In forming his deegation for the Paris Peace Conference, Wilson wanted a group he could control. One of Wilson's major goals at Paris was to found a League of Nations to enforce peace. The irreconcilables were fourteen Republican senators who steadfastly opposed every aspect of the League of Nations.
Chapter 25- Transition to Modern America 
The 1920s were marked by rapid economic and urban growth as well as rapid social change, inspiring tensions as rural American resisted the ensuring changes. Crucial to the growth of the automobile industry in the 1920s was marketing. The revolution in consumer goods disguised the decline of many traditional industries. The mos visible symbol of the new cities of the 1920s was the skyscraper. The impact of the Nineteenth Amendment on women was less than women had hoped. The Red Scare of 1919 was an outgrowth of the intense nationalism of World War I. Prohibition bred a profound disrespect for the law. The immigration legislation of the 1920s was the most enduring achievement of the rural counterattack. The famous evolution trial of 1925 invovled biology teacher John Scopes. The chief figures in the Teapot Dome scandal was Albert Fall.
Chapter 26- Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal
After a great rise in the stock market, the 1929 crash brought about an economic depression, which had to be addressed by Hoover, and then, more successfully, by Franklin Delano Roosevelt. The most striling characteristic of the stock market in 1929 was  investors' obsession with speculation. Hoover believed that unemployment relef would be the most beneficent if it came from private charities. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation was designed to loan money to financial institutions to prevent bankruptcies. Franklin D. Roosevelt and his advisers believed that to restore purchasing power to farmers, production should be cut. Roosevelt's Hundred Days banking legislation was designed to support strong banks and eliminate the weaker ones. Franklin D. Roosevelt's initial New Deal legislation was surprisingly conservative. The Hundred Days refers to the period immediately after Roosevelt's first inauguration. The Tennessee Valley Authority was designed to bring modernization and jobs to desolate areas of the upper rural South. Huey Long advocated "sharing the wealth." The Social Security Act of 1935 was a fundamentally conservative measure.
Chapter 27- American and the World, 1921-1945
After remaining primarily isolationist through the 1920s, in the 1930s, the U.S. became increasingly involved in world affairs and took a leading role in maintaining world order. The supporters of the Kellogg-Briand Pact hoped to initiate the process toward the outlawing of war. The Clark Memorandum of 1930 repudiated the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. The signatories of the Five Power Treaty at the Washington Conference in 1921 agreed to limit the size of their naives. The Good Neighbor Policy promised Latin American countries a cooperative, rather than paternalistic, relationship with the U.S. in 1931, the illusion of peace was shattered by the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. The dictator of Fascist Italy was Benito Mussolini. Britain and France responded to initial German aggression by attempting to appease Hitler. The outbreak of war in Europe in 1939, Franklin D. Roosevelt declared American neutrality. The Lend-Lease Act of 1941 ensured the British easier access to American war supplies. The American fleet at Pearl Harbor was caught by surprise when Japan attacked because of human miscalculations and mistakes. 
Chapter 28- The Onset of the Cold War
The fundamental disagreement at the beginning of the Cold War involved the question of who  would control postwar Europe. The Soviet Union first learned of the American atomic bomb through the use of espionage. George Kennan's "containment" policy proposed American vigilance regarding Soviet expansionist tendencies. The Truman Doctrine was developed as a response to problems in greece. The Truman Doctrine marked an informal declaration of war against the U.S.S.R. The Marshall Plan proposed the infusion of massive amounts of American capital in Western Europe. Overall, the Marshall Plan generated a broad industrial recovery in Western Europe. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization represented a departure from traditional American isolationism. NATO intensified Soviet fears of the West. Truman's handling of the Berlin Blockade was an important factor in his victory in the election of 1948.
Chapter 29- Affluence and Anxiety
The individual wno invented the concept of mass construction of suburban homes was William Levitt. The great economic growth of the late 1940s and early 1950s resulted from great consumer demand and heavy defense spending. The new American suburbs of the 1950s showed a surprising occupational diversity among inhabitants. According to the social critic C. Wright Mills, the real villiain in American society in the 1950s was  the corporation. The launching of the Soviet Sputnik in 1957 led to a massive reformation in American education. President Harry Truman's domestic program was known as the Fair Deal. Eisenhower's legislative resord could be characterized as very modest. In Congress, Sam Rayburn was Democrats that President Eisenhower had to work most closely with during the 1950s. The one significant legislative achievement of the Eisenhower years was the Highway Act of 1956. In its decision in Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, the Supreme Court declared separate educational facilities to be inherently unequal.
Chapter 30- The Turbulent Sixties
Critical to John Kennedy's victory in the election of 1960 was his sucess in televised debates against Richard Nixon.  John F. Kennedy's [lan to balance out nuclear capacity with conventional military strength was known as flexible response. The building of the Berlin Wall in 1961 was meant to keep East Germans from migrating to the West. Kennedy's foreign policy approach to Latin America was known as the Alliance for Progress. Kennedy support the Bay of Bigs invasion because he believed it would thwart the aims of the Soviet Union. One result of the Cuban Missile Crisis was the  "hot-line."American foreign policy hawks believed that the outcome of the Cuban Missile Crisis justified a policy of nuclear superiority. In the Baker vs. Wainwright decision, the supreme Court ruled that state legislatures had to be reapportioned. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlined racial segregation in public facilities, outlawed racial discrimination in employment, proteceted the voting rights of African Americans, and included gender as an unacceptable basis for discrimination in hiring. Lyndon Johnson sought the Gulf of Tokin Resolution to demonstrate to the North Vietnamese and his political opponents his determination totake a tough stance in Vietnam.
Chapter 31- To A New Conervatism, 1969-1988
The 1973 United States North Vietnam agreement was actually a disguised U.S. surrender. The Watergate scandal demonstrated the strength of American's basic governmental institutions. Public confidence in the political system was the greatest casualty of the Watergate scandal. The most grave consequence of the 1970s oil shock was  inflation throuhout America. The women's movement grew out of the civil rights and antiwar movements. The birth of the gay liberation movement was at the Stonewall Inn. Reaganomics was a form of supply-side economics. Apparently Oliver North, William Casey, John Poindexter, and Robert McFarlane knew of the Iran Contra affair before November 1986. In responding to the burgeoning AIDS epidemic, the Reagan administration proved slow and halting in its approach. Mikhail Gorbachev's new policy included Peresroika, and Glansnost.
Chapter 32- To the Twenty-First Century
By the late 1990s, the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) Represented approximately 30 million Americans. Asian Americans have not found assimilation easy. In the presidential election of 1992,  George Bush, Bill Clinton, Ross Perot, and Joe Walsh were candidate's for president of the United States. In 1991, Bush replaced Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall with Clarence Thomas. The women who accused Clarence Thomas of sexual harassment was Anite Hall. No economic issue had more political impact by 1992 than the widespread belief in the decline of the middle class. The most controversial proposal of Bill Clinton's administration was the prorosal to end discrimination against gays in the military. The consumer advocate who ran for president in 2000 with the Green Party was Ralph Nadar. Kenneth Starr was the special prosecuter appointed to investigate Whitewater and the Lewinsky scandal. The leading Republican proponent of the Contract with America was Newt Gingrich.
 

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